Wed. Dec 1st, 2021
Android software development - Wikipedia

Process of writing software for Android working system

Android software development is the method by which purposes are created for units working the Android working system. Google states that[3] “Android apps may be written utilizing Kotlin, Java, and C++ languages” utilizing the Android software development package (SDK), whereas utilizing different languages can also be potential. All non-Java digital machine (JVM) languages, akin to Go, JavaScript, C, C++ or meeting, want the assistance of JVM language code, which may be provided by instruments, probably with restricted API help. Some programming languages and instruments enable cross-platform app help (i.e. for each Android and iOS). Third occasion instruments, development environments, and language help have additionally continued to evolve and develop for the reason that preliminary SDK was launched in 2008. The official Android app distribution mechanism to finish customers is Google Play; it additionally permits staged gradual app launch, in addition to distribution of pre-launch app variations to testers.

Official development instruments[edit]

The Android software development package (SDK) features a complete set of development instruments. The Android SDK Platform Tools are a individually downloadable subset of the complete SDK, consisting of command-line instruments akin to adb and fastboot. The Android Debug Bridge (ADB) is a software to run instructions on a linked Android machine. Fastboot is a protocol used for flashing filesystems. Code written in C/C++ may be compiled to ARM, or x86 native code (or their 64-bit variants) utilizing the Android Native Development Kit (NDK).

Android Open Accessory Development Kit[edit]

The Android 3.1 platform (additionally backported to Android 2.3.4) introduces Android Open Accessory help, which permits exterior USB {hardware} (an Android USB accent) to work together with an Android-powered machine in a particular “accessory” mode. When an Android-powered machine is in accent mode, the linked accent acts because the USB host (powers the bus and enumerates units) and the Android-powered machine acts because the USB machine. Android USB equipment are particularly designed to connect to Android-powered units and cling to a easy protocol (Android accent protocol) that permits them to detect Android-powered units that help accent mode.[4]

External {hardware} development[edit]

Development instruments meant to assist an Android machine work together with exterior electronics embody IOIO, Android Open Accessory Development Kit, Microbridge, Triggertrap, and many others.

Android Developer Challenge[edit]

The Android Developer Challenge was a contest to seek out essentially the most progressive software for Android. Google supplied prizes totaling 10 million US {dollars}, distributed between ADC I and ADC II. ADC I accepted submissions from January 2 to April 14, 2008. The 50 most promising entries, introduced on May 12, 2008, every obtained a $25,000 award to additional development.[5][6] It led to early September with the announcement of ten groups that obtained $275,000 every, and ten groups that obtained $100,000 every.[7]

ADC II was introduced on May 27, 2009.[8] The first spherical of the ADC II closed on October 6, 2009.[9] The first-spherical winners of ADC II comprising the highest 200 purposes have been introduced on November 5, 2009. Voting for the second spherical additionally opened on the identical day and ended on November 25. Google introduced the highest winners of ADC II on November 30, with CandyDreams, What the Doodle!? and WaveSecure being nominated the general winners of the problem.[10][11]

There is a neighborhood of open-supply fanatics that construct and share Android-based distributions (i.e. firmware) with a lot of customizations and extra options, akin to FLAC lossless audio help and the power to retailer downloaded purposes on the microSD card.[12] This normally entails rooting the machine. Rooting permits customers root entry to the working system, enabling full management of the cellphone. Rooting has a number of disadvantages as effectively, together with elevated threat of hacking, excessive probabilities of bricking, shedding guarantee, elevated virus assault dangers, and many others.[13] It can also be potential to put in customized firmware, though the machine’s boot loader should even be unlocked. Custom firmware permits customers of older telephones to make use of purposes out there solely on newer releases.[14]

Those firmware packages are up to date ceaselessly, incorporate components of Android performance that have not but been formally launched inside a provider-sanctioned firmware, and have a tendency to have fewer limitations. CyanogenMod and OMFGB are examples of such firmware.

On September 24, 2009, Google issued a stop and desist letter[15] to the modder Cyanogen, citing points with the re-distribution of Google’s closed-supply purposes[16] inside the customized firmware. Even although most of Android OS is open supply, telephones come packaged with closed-supply Google purposes for performance such because the Google Play and GPS navigation. Google has asserted that these purposes can solely be supplied by authorized distribution channels by licensed distributors. Cyanogen complied with Google’s license and continued to distribute its mod with out the proprietary software. It supplied a way to backup licensed Google purposes through the mod’s set up course of and restore them when the method is full.[17]

Java requirements[edit]

Obstacles to development embody the truth that Android doesn’t use established Java requirements, that’s, Java SE and ME. This prevents compatibility between Java purposes written for these platforms and people written for the Android platform. Android reuses the Java language syntax and semantics, however it doesn’t present the complete class libraries and APIs bundled with Java SE or ME.[18] However, there are a number of instruments available in the market from corporations akin to Myriad Group and UpOnTek that present Java ME to Android conversion companies.[19][20][21]

Android offers its personal GUI lessons, and doesn’t present Java AWT, Swing or JavaFX. It doesn’t help the complete Java Beans API.[citation needed]

History and market share[edit]

Android was created by the Open Handset Alliance, which is led by Google. The early suggestions on growing purposes for the Android platform was blended.[22] Issues cited embody bugs, lack of documentation, insufficient QA infrastructure, and no public concern-monitoring system. (Google introduced a problem tracker on January 18, 2008.)[23] In December 2007, MergeLab cell startup founder Adam MacBeth acknowledged, “Functionality is not there, is poorly documented or just doesn’t work… It’s clearly not ready for prime time.”[24] Despite this, Android-targeted purposes started to appear the week after the platform was introduced. The first publicly out there software was the Snake recreation.[25][26]

A preview launch of the Android SDK was launched on November 12, 2007. On July 15, 2008, the Android Developer Challenge Team by accident despatched an e mail to all entrants within the Android Developer Challenge saying {that a} new launch of the SDK was out there in a “private” obtain space. The e mail was meant for winners of the primary spherical of the Android Developer Challenge. The revelation that Google was supplying new SDK releases to some builders and never others (and conserving this association personal) led to extensively reported frustration inside the Android developer neighborhood on the time.[27]

On August 18, 2008, the Android 0.9 SDK beta was launched. This launch supplied an up to date and prolonged API, improved development instruments and an up to date design for the house display. Detailed directions for upgrading can be found to these already working with an earlier launch.[28] On September 23, 2008, the Android 1.0 SDK (Release 1) was launched.[29] According to the discharge notes, it included “mainly bug fixes, although some smaller features were added.” It additionally included a number of API modifications from the 0.9 model. Multiple variations have been launched because it was developed.[30]

On December 5, 2008, Google introduced the primary Android Dev Phone, a SIM-unlocked and {hardware}-unlocked machine that’s designed for superior builders. It was a modified model of HTC’s Dream cellphone. While builders can use common client units to check and use their purposes, some builders might select a devoted unlocked or no-contract machine.

As of July 2013, a couple of million purposes have been developed for Android,[31] with over 25 billion downloads.[32][33] A June 2011 analysis indicated that over 67% of cell builders used the platform, on the time of publication.[34] Android smartphone shipments are forecast to exceed 1.2 billion items in 2018 with an 85% market share.[35]

See additionally[edit]


  1. ^ a b “The Android Source Code”. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  2. ^ Syed H (September 24, 2012). “Editorial: Why You Should Go Nexus”. Droid Lessons. Archived from the unique on February 18, 2017. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  3. ^ “Application Fundamentals”. Android Developers.
  4. ^ “Android Developers guides”. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
  5. ^ Chen, Jason (May 12, 2008). “The Top 50 Applications”. Android Developers Blog. Archived from the unique on September 25, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2009.
  6. ^ Brown, Eric (May 13, 2008). “Android Developer Challenge announces first-round winners”. Linux for Devices. Archived from the unique on May 14, 2008.
  7. ^ “ADC I Top 50 Gallery”. Android Developer Challenge. Retrieved May 19, 2009.
  8. ^ “Android Developer Challenge”. Google Code. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
  9. ^ Chu, Eric (October 6, 2009). “ADC 2 Round 1 Scoring Complete”. Android Developers Blog. Archived from the unique on November 1, 2009. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
  10. ^ “ADC 2 Overall Winners”. Android Developer Challenge. Archived from the unique on January 4, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  11. ^ Kharif, Olga (November 30, 2009). “Android Developer Challenge 2 Winners Announced”. EnterpriseWeek. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  12. ^ “Dream android development”. xda-builders discussion board. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
  13. ^ “Rooting: Advantages and Disadvantages”. ITCSE discussion board. Archived from the unique on November 29, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  14. ^ “Android 2.1 from Motorola Droid Ported to G1”. Volt Mobile. March 10, 2010. Archived from the unique on May 31, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  15. ^ Wimberly, Taylor (September 24, 2009). “CyanogenMod in trouble?”. Android and me. Archived from the unique on October 3, 2009. Retrieved September 26, 2009.
  16. ^ Morrill, Dan (September 25, 2009). “A Note on Google Apps for Android”. Android Developers Blog. Archived from the unique on October 25, 2009. Retrieved September 26, 2009.
  17. ^ “The current state…” CyanogenMod Android ROM. September 27, 2009. Archived from the unique on November 3, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2009.
  18. ^ van Gurp, Jilles (November 13, 2007). “Google Android: Initial Impressions and Criticism”. Javalobby. Archived from the unique on August 28, 2008. Retrieved March 7, 2009. Frankly, I do not perceive why Google intends to disregard the huge quantity of current implementation on the market. It looks like a nasty case of “not invented here” to me. Ultimately, this can gradual adoption. There are already too many Java platforms for the cell world and that is yet one more one
  19. ^ “Myriad’s New J2Android Converter Fuels Android Applications Gold Rush”. March 19, 2010. Archived from the unique on July 4, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  20. ^ Fruhlinger, Josh (March 23, 2010). “J2Android hopes you don’t know that Android is Java-based”. JavaWorld. Retrieved 2020-07-13. On the opposite hand, you may assume that is sort of a rip-off aimed toward builders who do not actually perceive the character of the platform they’re concentrating on. My greatest criticism is that you simply’d assume that Mikael Ricknäs, the IDG News Service reporter who wrote the primary story linked to above (who toils for a similar firm that publishes JavaWorld), would have a minimum of talked about the connection between Java and Android to make the oddness of this announcement clear.
  21. ^ Fruhlinger, Josh (March 31, 2010). “Myriad CTO: J2Android moves MIDlets to “stunning” Android framework”. JavaWorld. Retrieved 2020-07-13. We must wait and see precisely how a lot pickup J2Android really sees. The software is not really out there on the open market simply but; whereas Schillings spoke optimistically about “converting 1,000 MIDlets in an afternoon,” in the mean time they’re working with a couple of suppliers to rework their again catalogs. So these of you on the market hoping to keep away from studying how one can write Android code might have to attend some time.
  22. ^ Paul, Ryan (December 19, 2007). “Developing apps for Google Android: it’s a mixed bag”. Ars Technica. Archived from the unique on December 20, 2007. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
  23. ^ Morrill, Dan (January 18, 2008). “You can’t rush perfection, but now you can file bugs against it”. Android Developers Blog. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
  24. ^ Morrison, Scott (December 19, 2007). “Glitches Bug Google’s Android Software”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
  25. ^ “Snake”. Android Freeware. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
  26. ^ “First Android Application — Snake”. Mobiles2day. November 14, 2007. Archived from the unique on May 11, 2008. Retrieved January 7, 2008.
  27. ^ Metz, Cade (July 14, 2008). “Google plays Hide and Seek with Android SDK”. The Register. Archived from the unique on October 6, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2008.
  28. ^ “Android — An Open Handset Alliance Project: Upgrading the SDK”. Archived from the unique on September 13, 2008. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
  29. ^ “Other SDK Releases”. Android Developers. Retrieved September 2, 2009.
  30. ^ “SDK Archives”. Android Developers.
  31. ^ “Google Play Hits 1 Million Apps”. Mashable. July 24, 2013.
  32. ^ “Android App Stats”. Archived from the unique on January 2, 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
  33. ^ Leena Rao (April 14, 2011). “Google: 3 Billion Android Apps Installed; Downloads Up 50 Percent From Last Quarter”. Techcrunch. Archived from the unique on April 25, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  34. ^ “Developer Economics 2011”. Archived from the unique on September 29, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  35. ^ “Worldwide Smartphone Volumes Will Remain Down in 2018 Before Returning to Growth in 2019 and Beyond, According to IDC”. May 30, 2018. Archived from the unique on October 17, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2018.


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