Tue. Dec 7th, 2021
Android (robot) - Wikipedia

Robot resembling a human

An android is a robotic[1] or different synthetic being[2][3][4] designed to resemble a human, and infrequently constructed from a flesh-like materials.[2] Historically, androids had been utterly throughout the area of science fiction and regularly seen in movie and tv, however current advances in robotic know-how now permit the design of useful and lifelike[5]humanoid robots.[6]

Etymology[edit]

Early instance of the time period androides used to explain human-like mechanical gadgets, London Times, 22 December 1795

The phrase was coined from the Greek root ἀνδρ- andr– “man, male” (versus ἀνθρωπ- anthrōp– “human being”) and the suffix -oid “having the form or likeness of”.[7] In Greek, nevertheless, ανδροειδής androeidēs is an adjective. While the time period “android” is utilized in reference to human-trying robots typically, a robotic with a feminine look can be known as a gynoid.

The Oxford English Dictionary traces the earliest use (as “Androides”) to Ephraim Chambers‘ 1728 Cyclopaedia, in reference to an automaton that St. Albertus Magnus allegedly created.[3][8] By the late 1700s, “androides”, elaborate mechanical gadgets resembling people performing human actions, had been displayed in exhibit halls.[9]
The time period “android” seems in US patents as early as 1863 in reference to miniature human-like toy automatons.[10] The time period android was utilized in a extra fashionable sense by the French writer Auguste Villiers de l’Isle-Adam in his work Tomorrow’s Eve (1886).[3] This story options a synthetic humanlike robotic named Hadaly. As stated by the officer within the story, “In this age of Realien advancement, who knows what goes on in the mind of those responsible for these mechanical dolls.” The time period made an influence into English pulp science fiction ranging from Jack Williamson‘s The Cometeers (1936) and the excellence between mechanical robots and fleshy androids was popularized by Edmond Hamilton‘s Captain Future tales (1940–1944).[3]

Although Karel Čapek‘s robots in R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots) (1921)—the play that launched the phrase robotic to the world—had been natural synthetic people, the phrase “robot” has come to primarily check with mechanical people, animals, and different beings.[3] The time period “android” can imply both of these,[3] whereas a cyborg (“cybernetic organism” or “bionic man”) can be a creature that could be a mixture of natural and mechanical components.

The time period “droid“, popularized by George Lucas within the unique Star Wars movie and now used extensively inside science fiction, originated as an abridgment of “android”, however has been utilized by Lucas and others to imply any robotic, together with distinctly non-human type machines like R2-D2. The phrase “android” was utilized in Star Trek: The Original Series episode “What Are Little Girls Made Of?” The abbreviation “andy”, coined as a pejorative by author Philip Okay. Dick in his novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, has seen some additional utilization, comparable to throughout the TV collection Total Recall 2070.[11]

Authors have used the time period android in additional various methods than robotic or cyborg. In some fictional works, the distinction between a robotic and android is simply superficial, with androids being made to appear like people on the skin however with robotic-like inner mechanics.[3] In different tales, authors have used the phrase “android” to imply an entirely natural, but synthetic, creation.[3] Other fictional depictions of androids fall someplace in between.[3]

Eric G. Wilson, who defines an android as a “synthetic human being”, distinguishes between three kinds of android, primarily based on their physique’s composition:

  • the mother sort – manufactured from “dead things” or “stiff, inanimate, natural material”, comparable to mummies, puppets, dolls and statues
  • the golem sort – constructed from versatile, presumably natural materials, together with golems and homunculi
  • the automaton sort – constructed from a mixture of lifeless and residing components, together with automatons and robots[4]

Although human morphology just isn’t essentially the best type for working robots, the fascination in creating robots that may mimic it may be discovered traditionally within the assimilation of two ideas: simulacra (gadgets that exhibit likeness) and automata (gadgets which have independence).

Projects[edit]

Several initiatives aiming to create androids that look, and, to a sure diploma, converse or act like a human being have been launched or are underway.

Japan[edit]

Japanese robotics have been main the sector because the Nineteen Seventies.[12]Waseda University initiated the WABOT venture in 1967, and in 1972 accomplished the WABOT-1, the primary android, a full-scale humanoid clever robotic.[13][14] Its limb management system allowed it to stroll with the decrease limbs, and to grip and transport objects with fingers, utilizing tactile sensors. Its imaginative and prescient system allowed it to measure distances and instructions to things utilizing exterior receptors, synthetic eyes and ears. And its dialog system allowed it to speak with an individual in Japanese, with a synthetic mouth.[14][15][16]

In 1984, WABOT-2 was revealed, and made various enhancements. It was able to enjoying the organ. Wabot-2 had ten fingers and two ft, and was capable of learn a rating of music. It was additionally capable of accompany an individual.[17] In 1986, Honda started its humanoid analysis and growth program, to create humanoid robots able to interacting efficiently with people.[18]

The Intelligent Robotics Lab, directed by Hiroshi Ishiguro at Osaka University, and the Kokoro firm demonstrated the Actroid at Expo 2005 in Aichi Prefecture, Japan and launched the Telenoid R1 in 2010. In 2006, Kokoro developed a brand new DER 2 android. The top of the human physique a part of DER2 is 165 cm. There are 47 cellular factors. DER2 cannot solely change its expression but in addition transfer its fingers and ft and twist its physique. The “air servosystem” which Kokoro developed initially is used for the actuator. As a results of having an actuator managed exactly with air stress by way of a servosystem, the motion may be very fluid and there’s little or no noise. DER2 realized a slimmer physique than that of the previous model through the use of a smaller cylinder. Outwardly DER2 has a extra stunning proportion. Compared to the earlier mannequin, DER2 has thinner arms and a wider repertoire of expressions. Once programmed, it is ready to choreograph its motions and gestures with its voice.

The Intelligent Mechatronics Lab, directed by Hiroshi Kobayashi on the Tokyo University of Science, has developed an android head referred to as Saya, which was exhibited at Robodex 2002 in Yokohama, Japan. There are a number of different initiatives world wide involving humanoid analysis and growth presently, which is able to hopefully introduce a broader spectrum of realized know-how within the close to future. Now Saya is working on the Science University of Tokyo as a information.

The Waseda University (Japan) and NTT Docomo’s producers have succeeded in making a form-shifting robotic WD-2. It is able to altering its face. At first, the creators determined the positions of the mandatory factors to precise the define, eyes, nostril, and so forth of a sure individual. The robotic expresses its face by transferring all factors to the determined positions, they are saying. The first model of the robotic was first developed again in 2003. After that, a 12 months later, they made a few main enhancements to the design. The robotic options an elastic masks constructed from the typical head dummy. It makes use of a driving system with a 3DOF unit. The WD-2 robotic can change its facial options by activating particular facial factors on a masks, with every level possessing three levels of freedom. This one has 17 facial factors, for a complete of 56 levels of freedom. As for the supplies they used, the WD-2’s masks is fabricated with a extremely elastic materials referred to as Septom, with bits of metal wool blended in for added power. Other technical options reveal a shaft pushed behind the masks on the desired facial level, pushed by a DC motor with a easy pulley and a slide screw. Apparently, the researchers may modify the form of the masks primarily based on precise human faces. To “copy” a face, they want solely a 3D scanner to find out the places of a person’s 17 facial factors. After that, they’re then pushed into place utilizing a laptop computer and 56 motor management boards. In addition, the researchers additionally point out that the shifting robotic may even show a person’s hair fashion and pores and skin shade if a photograph of their face is projected onto the 3D Mask.

Singapore[edit]

Prof Nadia Thalmann, a Nanyang Technological University scientist, directed efforts of the Institute for Media Innovation together with the School of Computer Engineering within the growth of a social robotic, Nadine. Nadine is powered by software program much like Apple’s Siri or Microsoft’s Cortana. Nadine might develop into a private assistant in workplaces and houses in future, or she might develop into a companion for the younger and the aged.

Assoc Prof Gerald Seet from the School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering and the BeingThere Centre led a 3-12 months R&D growth in tele-presence robotics, creating EDGAR. A distant consumer can management EDGAR with the consumer’s face and expressions displayed on the robotic’s face in actual time. The robotic additionally mimics their higher physique actions.
[19]

South Korea[edit]

KITECH researched and developed EveR-1, an android interpersonal communications mannequin able to emulating human emotional expression by way of facial “musculature” and able to rudimentary dialog, having a vocabulary of round 400 phrases. She is 160 cm tall and weighs 50 kg, matching the typical determine of a Korean lady in her twenties. EveR-1’s title derives from the Biblical Eve, plus the letter r for robotic. EveR-1’s superior computing processing energy allows speech recognition and vocal synthesis, on the identical time processing lip synchronization and visible recognition by 90-diploma micro-CCD cameras with face recognition know-how. An impartial microchip inside her synthetic mind handles gesture expression, physique coordination, and emotion expression. Her complete physique is manufactured from extremely superior artificial jelly silicon and with 60 synthetic joints in her face, neck, and decrease physique; she is ready to display lifelike facial expressions and sing whereas concurrently dancing. In South Korea, the Ministry of Information and Communication has an bold plan to place a robotic in each family by 2020.[20] Several robotic cities have been deliberate for the nation: the primary shall be in-built 2016 at a price of 500 billion gained (US$440 million), of which 50 billion is direct authorities funding.[21] The new robotic metropolis will characteristic analysis and growth facilities for producers and half suppliers, in addition to exhibition halls and a stadium for robotic competitions. The nation’s new Robotics Ethics Charter will set up floor guidelines and legal guidelines for human interplay with robots sooner or later, setting requirements for robotics customers and producers, in addition to tips on moral requirements to be programmed into robots to stop human abuse of robots and vice versa.[22]

United States[edit]

Walt Disney and a employees of Imagineers created Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln that debuted on the 1964 New York World’s Fair.[23]

Dr. William Barry, an Education Futurist and former visiting West Point Professor of Philosophy and Ethical Reasoning on the United States Military Academy, created an AI android character named “Maria Bot”. This Interface AI android was named after the notorious fictional robotic Maria within the 1927 movie Metropolis, as a effectively-behaved distant relative. Maria Bot is the primary AI Android Teaching Assistant on the college degree.[24][25] Maria Bot has appeared as a keynote speaker as a duo with Barry for a TEDx discuss in Everett, Washington in February 2020.[26]

Dr. William Barry (left) with Maria Bot (proper)

Resembling a human from the shoulders up, Maria Bot is a digital being android that has advanced facial expressions and head motion and engages in dialog about a wide range of topics. She makes use of AI to course of and synthesize info to make her personal selections on find out how to discuss and interact. She collects knowledge by way of conversations, direct knowledge inputs comparable to books or articles, and thru web sources.

Maria Bot was constructed by a global excessive-tech firm for Barry to assist enhance training high quality and remove training poverty. Maria Bot is designed to create new methods for college kids to have interaction and talk about moral points raised by the growing presence of robots and synthetic intelligence. Barry additionally makes use of Maria Bot to display that programming a robotic with life-affirming, moral framework makes them extra seemingly to assist people to do the identical.[27]

Dr. William Barry (proper) and a fan pose with Maria Bot (middle)

Maria Bot is an envoy robotic for good and moral AI know-how.[28]

Hanson Robotics, Inc., of Texas and KAIST produced an android portrait of Albert Einstein, utilizing Hanson’s facial android know-how mounted on KAIST’s life-measurement strolling bipedal robotic physique. This Einstein android, additionally referred to as “Albert Hubo“, thus represents the primary full-physique strolling android in historical past.[29] Hanson Robotics, the FedEx Institute of Technology,[30] and the University of Texas at Arlington additionally developed the android portrait of sci-fi writer Philip Okay. Dick (creator of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, the premise for the movie Blade Runner), with full conversational capabilities that included 1000’s of pages of the writer’s works.[31] In 2005, the PKD android gained a primary-place synthetic intelligence award from AAAI.

Use in fiction[edit]

Androids are a staple of science fiction. Isaac Asimov pioneered the fictionalization of the science of robotics and synthetic intelligence, notably in his Fifties collection I, Robot.[32] One factor frequent to most fictional androids is that the actual-life technological challenges related to creating totally human-like robots—such because the creation of robust synthetic intelligence—are assumed to have been solved.[33] Fictional androids are sometimes depicted as mentally and bodily equal or superior to people—transferring, pondering and talking as fluidly as them.[3][33]

The rigidity between the nonhuman substance and the human look—and even human ambitions—of androids is the dramatic impetus behind most of their fictional depictions.[4][33] Some android heroes search, like Pinocchio, to develop into human, as within the movie Bicentennial Man,[33] or Data in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Others, as within the movie Westworld, insurgent in opposition to abuse by careless people.[33] Android hunter Deckard in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and its movie adaptation Blade Runner discovers that his targets look like, in some methods, extra “human” than he’s.[33] Android tales, subsequently, should not basically tales “about” androids; they’re tales in regards to the human situation and what it means to be human.[33]

One side of writing in regards to the which means of humanity is to make use of discrimination in opposition to androids as a mechanism for exploring racism in society, as in Blade Runner.[34] Perhaps the clearest instance of that is John Brunner’s 1968 novel Into the Slave Nebula, the place the blue-skinned android slaves are explicitly proven to be totally human.[35] More not too long ago, the androids Bishop and Annalee Call within the movies Aliens and Alien Resurrection are used as autos for exploring how people take care of the presence of an “Other“.[36] The 2018 online game Detroit: Become Human additionally explores how androids are handled as second class residents in a close to future society.

Female androids, or “gynoids“, are sometimes seen in science fiction, and might be seen as a continuation of the lengthy custom of males making an attempt to create the stereotypical “perfect woman”.[37] Examples embody the Greek fantasy of Pygmalion and the feminine robotic Maria in Fritz Lang‘s Metropolis. Some gynoids, like Pris in Blade Runner, are designed as intercourse-objects, with the intent of “pleasing men’s violent sexual desires”,[38] or as submissive, servile companions, comparable to in The Stepford Wives. Fiction about gynoids has subsequently been described as reinforcing “essentialist ideas of femininity”,[39] though others have urged that the therapy of androids is a manner of exploring racism and misogyny in society.[40]

The 2015 Japanese movie Sayonara, starring Geminoid F, was promoted as “the first movie to feature an android performing opposite a human actor”.[41]

See additionally[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Van Riper, A. Bowdoin (2002). Science in widespread tradition: a reference information. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-313-31822-0.
  2. ^ a b Jeff Prucher (2007). Brave new phrases: the Oxford dictionary of science fiction. Oxford University Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-19-530567-8.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Brian M. Stableford (2006). Science reality and science fiction: an encyclopedia. CRC Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0-415-97460-8.
  4. ^ a b c Eric G. Wilson (2006). The melancholy android: on the psychology of sacred machines. SUNY Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-7914-6846-3.
  5. ^ Caroline., McCaw (2001). Http. [University of Otago?]. OCLC 225915408.
  6. ^ Ishiguro, Hiroshi. “Android science.”, Cognitive Science Society, Osaka, 2005. Retrieved on 3 October 2013.
  7. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Draft Revision, December 2008
  8. ^ OED at “android” citing Ephraim Chambers, Cyclopædia; or, a common dictionary of arts and sciences. 1728.
  9. ^ “At the Mechanical Theater”. London Times. 22 December 1795.
  10. ^ “U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Patent# 40891, Toy Automation. Google Patents. Archived from the unique on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  11. ^ Levin, Drew S. (exec. prod.) (23 February 1999). “Rough Whimper of Insanity”. Total Recall 2070. Season 1. Episode 7. Toronto. 2:10 minutes in. Channel Zero. CHCH-TV. Archived from the unique on 5 February 2010.
  12. ^ Zeghloul, Saïd; Laribi, Med Amine; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre (21 September 2015). Robotics and Mechatronics: Proceedings of the 4th IFToMM International Symposium on Robotics and Mechatronics. Springer. ISBN 9783319223681.
  13. ^ “Humanoid History -WABOT-“. www.humanoid.waseda.ac.jp.
  14. ^ a b “Historical Android Projects”. androidworld.com.
  15. ^ Robots: From Science Fiction to Technological Revolution, web page 130
  16. ^ Duffy, Vincent G. (19 April 2016). Handbook of Digital Human Modeling: Research for Applied Ergonomics and Human Factors Engineering. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420063523.
  17. ^ “2history”. Archived from the unique on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  18. ^ “P3”. Honda Worldwide. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
  19. ^ “NTU scientists unveil social and telepresence robots”. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  20. ^ “A Robot in Every Home by 2020, South Korea Says”. News.nationalgeographic.com. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  21. ^ “South Korea set to build “Robot Land. Engadget. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  22. ^ “Robot Code of Ethics to Prevent Android Abuse, Protect Humans”. News.nationalgeographic.com. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  23. ^ “Pavilions & Attractions – Illinois – Page Two”. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  24. ^ “The Education of an Android Teacher – EdSurge News”. 9 March 2020.
  25. ^ “First Android Teaching Assistant at NDNU | Media Center”.
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ “Maria Bot”.
  28. ^ “Mesh conference announces AI robot as keynote speaker”. 24 February 2020.
  29. ^ “(no title)”. www.hansonrobotics.wordpress.com.
  30. ^ “FIT – FedEx Institute of Technology – The University of Memphis”. www.fedex.memphis.edu.
  31. ^ “about ” PKD Android”. www.pkdandroid.org.
  32. ^ Jonathan Barra, Roger Caille; et al. “The Android Generation”. West Coast Midnight Run/Citadel Consulting Group LLC. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g Van Riper, op.cit., p. 11.
  34. ^ Dinello, Daniel (2005). Technophobia!: Science Fiction Visions of Posthuman Technology. University of Texas Press. p. 76. ISBN 9780292709867.
  35. ^ D’Ammassa, Don (2005). Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Facts on File. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8160-5924-9.
  36. ^ Nishime, LeiLani (Winter 2005). “The Mulatto Cyborg: Imagining a Multiracial Future”. Cinema Journal. University of Texas Press. 44 (2): 34–49. doi:10.1353/cj.2005.0011.
  37. ^ Melzer, Patricia (2006). Alien Constructions: Science Fiction and Feminist Thought. University of Texas Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-292-71307-9.
  38. ^ Melzer, p. 204
  39. ^ Grebowicz, Margret; L. Timmel Duchamp; Nicola Griffith; Terry Bisson (2007). SciFi within the thoughts’s eye: studying science by way of science fiction. Open Court. p. xviii. ISBN 978-0-8126-9630-1.
  40. ^ Dinello, op. cit., p 77.
  41. ^ James Hadfield (24 October 2015). “Tokyo: ‘Sayonara’ Filmmakers Debate Future of Robot Actors”. selection.com. Retrieved 9 November 2015.

Further studying[edit]

  • Kerman, Judith B. (1991). Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner and Philip Okay. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. ISBN 0-87972-509-5.
  • Perkowitz, Sidney (2004). Digital People: From Bionic Humans to Androids. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 0-309-09619-7.
  • Shelde, Per (1993). Androids, Humanoids, and Other Science Fiction Monsters: Science and Soul in Science Fiction Films. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-7930-1.
  • Ishiguro, Hiroshi. “Android science.” Cognitive Science Society. 2005.
  • Glaser, Horst Albert and Rossbach, Sabine: The Artificial Human, Frankfurt/M., Bern, New York 2011 “The Artificial Human”
  • TechCast Article Series, Jason Rupinski and Richard Mix, “Public Attitudes to Androids: Robot Gender, Tasks, & Pricing”
  • An-droid, “Similar to the Android name”
  • Carpenter, J. (2009). Why ship the Terminator to do R2D2s job?: Designing androids as rhetorical phenomena. Proceedings of HCI 2009: Beyond Gray Droids: Domestic Robot Design for the twenty first Century. Cambridge, UK. 1 September.
  • Telotte, J.P. Replications: A Robotic History of the Science Fiction Film. University of Illinois Press, 1995.

External hyperlinks[edit]


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